Tuesday, August 25, 2020

Estimating And Pre Contracts Quantity Surveying Construction Essay

Assessing And Pre Contracts Quantity Surveying Construction Essay The most significant phase of any task is Estimating and Pre-Contracts Quantity Surveying. Care must be taken at this stage, to deliver a progressively precise and sensible expense of the venture so the customer is in information on the budgetary prerequisite with no significant astonishments, for effective consummation of task inside the spending plan. Development ventures are consistently out of financial plan and deferred culmination date. The two fundamental reasons are either an off-base appraisal of the expense and length for the fulfillment of the venture or the customer is as a rule intentionally gave a diminished spending plan and a tight calendar for finishing of undertaking. Anyway the most widely recognized explanation is the mix of the expense and time gauges and the last being utilized by most specialists/engineers to persuade the customers to proceed with the venture. The decreased spending plan and the tight time plan is in some cases path away from the genuine, which is the primary purpose behind the breakdown of the customer. One of the harsh experience is with the Dubai Government Roads and Transport Authority being furnished with a Cost Estimate of about 4.25 billion dollars (15.5 billion dirhams) for the Dubai Metro Rail Project, which went over spending plan and crossed time limit while crossing 7.67 billion dollars (28 billion dirhams) use with still piece of the system stations being deficient. According to RTA there were four reasons of the expansion, first the undertaking was stretched out by 4.5 km, furthermore including a station with not many more kilometers of the rail, thirdly including two additional stations the Red Line and finally the changing of the inside of the stations definitely and including footbridges. Additionally to the way that in my profession of 10 years in Dubai, I have seen just one anticipate finished inside the spending plan and inside the dispensed tight timespan. The undertaking was executed with acceptable administration and appropriate assignment of assets to accomplish the finishing inside a brief timeframe. Anyway it isn't reasonable for accused Pre-Contracts strategy choosing the significant piece of the destiny of the development venture. Dynamic The PCQS needs to submit different reports as indicated by the different stages in Pre-Contracts. The different regions to be considered in the Pre-Contracts Quantity Surveying stage are as following 1) Selection of group. 2) Collection of verifiable information. 3) Identifying key personals worked specifically field to co-ordinate. 4) Incorporating contributions from different divisions heads. 5) Defining and executing for all intents and purposes a reasonable quality check methodology. 6) Following the different strides as per the phase of the archive submittal. 7) Team pioneer to distinguish and circulate the work to the capable faculty. 8) Quality Management, particularly during the finish of the accommodation date. 9) Preparing a progressively practical quote. 10) Back-checking by contrasting the Engineers Estimate and the sensible delicate opened. 11) Client can make the expert dependable by approaching to give reinforcements to the amounts and rates. 12) Including criticism and information gave from progressing ventures by Post Contract Quantity Surveyor. 13) Preparing of BOQ for Remaining Works of an agreement after the end of the Main Contractor. 14) Making the Consultant answerable for quotes gave to customers, to maintain a strategic distance from tremendous variety. 15) Quantity Surveyors to be quick and precise in managing Notice to Tenderers. To learn great exercises and maintain a strategic distance from future misfortune to the individuals from the development business, some contextual investigations are being given. ESTIMATION AND PRE-CONTRACTS QUANTITY SURVEYING The Pre-Contracts stage needs an excellent Quantity Surveyor having a wide scope of involvement in abilities to deal with the computations with the accessible programming and above all the memorable information accessible in the association for utilizing it as a base in Estimating. The ordinary technique in the pre-contracts evaluating is setting up the gauge during the Preliminary Study, Preliminary Design, Final Design and Tender Design. For tedious or comparable ventures, for which the association has great sound ongoing notable information, the contrast between all the stage gauges will be extremely less, if there is no extraordinary change in the extent of the work. The Quantity Surveyor will get ready and keep standard rates got from memorable information and keep as normal. It is better that the individual setting up the assessments, infers the standard rates himself, with the goal that he is in information on those things which are lumped into some unit rates or for those things whose cost to be independently determined if conceivable, or simply permit some rate in the possibilities or some other detail. As the stage advances the amounts and things turns out to be very much characterized and afterward just applying proper unit rates turns into a key fac tor. Be that as it may, at every single stage the Quantity Surveyor utilizing any presumption will save records for any future defense of the considerable number of assessments even until the beginning of the undertaking. The different phases of Pre-Contracts record submittal with rough time span is referenced beneath: Stage 1 Preliminary investigation One page gauge arranged by PCQS to be incorporated by the Project Manager in is study report. Stage 2 Preliminary Design (After around one month from stage 1) Volume 1 Tender and Contract Conditions Sample duplicate from past task Volume 2 Specifications Sample duplicate pertinent to the task Volume 3 BOQ Sample duplicate with thing depiction and without amounts, applicable to the task Volume 4 Drawings Relevant to the venture, including standard drawings applicable to the undertaking Primer Design Cost Estimate One page gauge of the task Stage 3 Final Design Document (After around one month from stage 2) Volume 1 Tender and Contract Conditions With all subtleties pertinent to the task Volume 2 Specifications Only pertinent to this task Volume 3 BOQ Actual things and amounts from drawings of this venture Volume 4 Drawings Relevant to the venture as it were Stage 4 Final Design Cost Estimate (On the seventh day from stage 3) Last Design Cost Estimate Detailed quote with amounts from drawings and current market rates. Stage 5 Tender Design Document (After around one month from stage 3) Volume 1, 2, 3 4 Tender and Contract Conditions Same as in stage 3 with joining of adjustments and changes. Stage 6 Notice to Tenderers (After the skimming of Tender archives to the bidders and not following 10 days before Tender opening date) It comprises of a report expressing the adjustments in all or any of the Volumes and the new pages. Stage 7 Engineers Estimate (upon the arrival of Tender opening date, after completely Bid records are opened and is submitted to the Client independently) It comprises of a definite quote with amounts from drawings and current market rates, in the wake of consolidating all NTTs. Stage 8 Tender Analysis (On the fourteenth day after stage 7) The PCQS needs to set up an investigation report of the offer archives submitted and contrast it and Engineers Estimate. Stage 9 Contract Documents (After stage 8 and finish of the fruitful bidder to grant the agreement) The PCQS needs to arrange all the records of Volumes 1, 2, 3 4 put together by the bidder and check if all the NTTs are consolidated and incorporate if any absent. He needs to likewise incorporate any post delicate correspondence and changes as concurred. This archive is sent to the Contractor for him to check and sign. This marked record is then marked by the Client and along these lines the Contract is framed. One duplicate of this marked archive goes to the Post Contracts segment, with which the duty of the PCQS is finished. The following are the different arrangements utilized in Pre-Contracts Documents: The product required is ostensible, for example, MS Word and MS Excel for getting ready archives. Also, for figuring amounts MS Excel is most impressive which can be utilized alongside Autocad, Microstation and Geopak. The Preliminary Study and Preliminary Design BOQ, comprises of test BOQ things with nil amounts as demonstrated as follows: Figure 1 The Final Design BOQ and Tender Design BOQ comprises of real work things with amounts determined from drawings as demonstrated as follows: Figure 2 Fundamental Study and Preliminary Design Cost Estimate position is as given underneath: Figure 3 Last Design Estimate and Tender Design Estimate is a nitty gritty gauge with work things, amounts and rates, as given underneath: Figure 4 An example page of the Tender Analysis is demonstrated as follows, which thinks about the rates and sums cited by three contractual workers. It additionally computes the base, normal and most extreme paces of the considerable number of temporary workers: Figure 5 The record of the Volume 1 Tender and Contract Conditions is demonstrated as follows: Figure 6 An example of the unit rate figuring sheet is demonstrated as follows: Figure 7 Viable APPLICATION OF PRE-CONTRACTS QUANTITY SURVEYING The investigation is calibrated to Infrastructure ventures like Roads and Bridges and utilizing FIDIC contract conditions and CESMM3 strategy for estimation. Coming up next are significant territories to be considered in Pre-Contracts stage. 1) Selection of group contingent upon the task and customer : This is the activity of the individual responsible for the QS group to choose the specific QSs who will have the option to convey the necessary venture with precision and in time. On the off chance that the venture is increasingly particular and novel, at that point the key QSs will have a superior building foundation and creative aptitudes to manage issues which comes up during the readiness of BOQ and gauge. Anyway some part of the work will be like routine work, which should be possible by different QSs. In this way inside the group jobs and obligations will be separated according to gauge and limit of carrying out the responsibility. The most significant angle is of correspondence, for example every single individual of the group will be conveyed of any progressions and offer new data got from other

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Across the Barricades - The good and the bad essays

Over the Barricades - The great and the terrible articles Over the Barricades is a novel loaded with bias and various suppositions on specific things in life Therefor the characters that Lingard presents have many character attributes. Lingard attempts to remote and stifle certain qualities by introducing various characters. Sadie, one of the fundamental characters in the novel, is a Protestant young lady. She is a decided and autonomous young lady with solid conclusions and she has a solid will. Another trait of Sadie is that she isn't apprehensive about supporting herself as well as other people. She battles for what she have confidence in and couldn't care less what others state. Another primary character is Kevin. He is a catholic kid. He is more scared of what individuals think than Sadie is and sees the results of their relationship more clear. As an individual Kevin can be depicted as quiet, genuine and persevering He is caring and won't hurt a fly except if he is gravely incited. Kevin feels that the battles between the Catholics and Protestants are nonsensical and pointless. Despite the fact that Brain Rafferty sells out Kevin, Kevin remains faithful to his old companion. He doesn't part with Brain when the police blamed him for possessing the firearm. In spite of the fact that Kevin and Sadie originates from various religions one can see they share the greater part of their accepts. The two of them accept they can be companions regardless of whether they have a place with various religions. Mr Blake shows up in a significant point in the novel. He gives Kevin and Sadie expectation and encourages them in their relationship. He himself is a Catholic, however he couldn't have cared less if individuals were Catholic or Protestant. He held no partiality against the individuals who had an unexpected religion in comparison to his own. Mr Blake considers others before he considers himself. He battles for what he puts stock in and won't surrender to psychological oppression. Individuals like Mr Blake and the Hendersons are perfect characters. On the off chance that everyone in Northern Ireland shared their disposition there would be no contention. ... <!

Monday, August 10, 2020

Social Phobia vs. Social Anxiety Disorder

Social Phobia vs. Social Anxiety Disorder Social Anxiety Disorder Related Conditions Print Social Phobia and Social Anxiety Disorder Differences Social Anxiety Disorder Has Replaced Social Phobia By Arlin Cuncic Arlin Cuncic, MA, is the author of Therapy in Focus: What to Expect from CBT for Social Anxiety Disorder and 7 Weeks to Reduce Anxiety. Learn about our editorial policy Arlin Cuncic Updated on July 11, 2019 Social Anxiety Disorder Overview Symptoms & Diagnosis Causes Treatment Living With In Children Alain Daussin / Getty Images The difference between social phobia and social anxiety disorder (SAD) is largely chronological, in that social phobia is the former term and SAD is the current term for the disorder. The official psychiatric diagnosis of social phobia was introduced in the third edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-III). Social phobia was at that time described as a fear of performance situations  and did not include fears of less formal situations such as casual conversations or meeting people for the first time. When Did Social Phobia Become Social Anxiety Disorder? The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) is a tool healthcare providers use to determine whether a person meets the criteria for different mental illnesses, helping them to make accurate diagnoses. The DSM-III referred to this  mental disorder as social phobia and was very narrow in its scope of diagnosis. When the DSM-IV  was published in 1994, the term social phobia was replaced by social anxiety disorder. The new term was introduced to describe the broad and generalized nature of the fears that are a part of this disorder. The criteria were  also changed to reflect the latest research on this topic.   In past editions of the DSM, social phobia was diagnosed if an individual felt extreme discomfort or fear when performing in front of others.In the DSM-IV, social anxiety disorder could be diagnosed if an individual feared a variety of different social situations. For example, a fear of conversation with strangers at a dinner party wouldnt have been considered social phobia; however, under the DSM-IV, this fear would fit the criteria for social anxiety disorder.   How Common Is Social Anxiety Disorder While you may feel very alone if you have social anxiety disorder, more than 15 million Americans are affected. Women are more likely to be diagnosed with the disorder than men. Diagnostic Criteria for Social Anxiety Disorder Social anxiety disorder goes  beyond nervousness or feeling socially awkward; it can be debilitating, harm relationships with loved ones, and hurt your career.To be diagnosed with SAD...Your response must be completely disproportionate to the situation. For example, having a severe panic attack or vomiting before giving a work presentation.Your symptoms must be present for at least six months.  Your symptoms must interfere with daily life, including work or other everyday activities. If your anxiety is so bad that you miss work and need to stay in bed, this means you need social anxiety treatment. An Overview of Social Anxiety Disorder How Is Social Anxiety Treated? Social anxiety disorder is treated with therapy, medication or a combination of the two. Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is one type of treatment that teaches you a new way of thinking and processing information.Medication can minimize feelings of anxiety, allowing you to take a step back from your anxious thoughts. Both therapy and medication are used to minimize your anxiety so that you can handle social situations more easily.   While social anxiety can be distressing and limit your activities, seeking treatment can make a substantial positive impact on your life. If you have had symptoms of social anxiety disorder, consult with your physician to begin a treatment plan and find a good therapist. Through therapy sessions and continual work, you will notice a substantial difference in the way that you are feeling. The 9 Best Online Therapy Programs

Saturday, May 23, 2020

Imperialism And Racism In Joseph Conrads Heart Of Darkness

The Negative Impact of Imperialism and Racism In the novella ‘Heart Of Darkness’ Marlow is a sailor who is telling the story to four other sailors about his expedition to The Congo and everything that ensued after he went on the expedition. Imperialism and racism has a negative impact on Marlow and Kurtz in Joseph Conrad’s novella â€Å"Heart Of Darkness† which reveals the savagery of the practice of imperialism. One of the impacts that is shown is near the end when Kurtz comes down with jungle fever and starts to show the symptoms. When Kurtz dies his last words are â€Å"The horror! The horror† (Conrad 69). When Kurtz says this, he is feeling remorse for everything that he has done to the natives of the land and all that he had put them through.†¦show more content†¦Then he sees that some of the Africans after they are done working they are left to die off from starvation and exhaustion. This is one of the key moments that Marlow starts to question if imperialism is really helpful to the Natives at all, if what him, Kurtz, and the Europeans are practicing is even morally right. Kurtz says what he is doing for the Natives is helping them by civilizing them and all of their savageness when in all actuality he only came to The Congo to fulfil all his wishes and his lusts. He tells all the colonizers that him and the Europeans is only there to help the Natives Christianize and civilize all the â€Å"ignorant† Natives, but they are actually there just for exploiting, trading, and manipulating just for the sake of ivory and money. Kurtz knows about the tragedy and heartache that him and the Europeans put upon the Natives by the practice of imperialism which he chooses to ignore or to even at the least acknowledge what they have done. Instead of owning up to the negative impact of the practice and imperialism that him and the Europeans participated in he decides to ignore his part of the problem he had a hand in and says â€Å" The Romans were conquerors and n otShow MoreRelated Comparing Colonialism and Imperialism in Heart of Darkness and Kiplings Poetry1515 Words   |  7 PagesImperialism in Heart of Darkness and Kiplings Poetry   Ã‚  Ã‚   Imperialism sprung from an altruistic and unselfish aim to take up the white mans burden1 and â€Å"wean [the] ignorant millions from their horrid ways.†2 These two citations are, of course, from Kipling’s â€Å"White Man’s Burden† and Conrad’s Heart of Darkness, respectively, and they splendidly encompass what British and European imperialism was about – at least seen from the late-nineteenth century point of view. This essay seeks to exploreRead MoreEssay about Heart of Darkness1745 Words   |  7 Pagesin depth review of Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness, a classical novella that illustrates without bias the motives behind human intentions and the extremes individuals can go to achieve wealth and profits at the expense of others with the aim of shedding insight into the rise of European imperialism, the imperial history, its politics and evil activities in the colonized African tribes along the river Congo during the e ighteenth and nineteenth century. The Heart of Darkness is an exceptionallyRead More Theme of Colonialism and Imperialism in Conrads Heart of Darkness1008 Words   |  5 PagesThe Theme of Imperialism in Heart of Darkness       Of the themes in Conrads Heart of Darkness, imperialism and colonialism are probably the most important. While Heart of Darkness is actually set on the Thames River, the events Marlow describes are set on the Congo River. The Congo is the river that brought about the partition of Africa that occurred from 1880 to 1890 (McLynn 13). This event marked the beginning of the colonization of Africa. In 1884, European nations held a conference andRead MoreAnalysis Of The Book Heart Of Darkness By Chinua Achebe1364 Words   |  6 Pages In Chinua Achebe’s essay, â€Å"An Image of Africa: Racism in Conrad s Heart of Darkness,† Achebe purports that Joseph Conrad’s short story, Heart of Darkness, should not be taught due to it’s racist caricature of Africa and African culture. In Conrad’s book, Marlow, a sea captain, is tasked with venturing into the center of the Congo, otherwise known as the Heart of Darkness, to retrieve a mentally unstable ivory trader named Kurtz. Marlow narrates his adventures with a tinge of apathy for the enslavedRead More Colonialism and Imperialism in Conrads Heart of Darkness Essay1016 Words   |  5 PagesImperialism Exposed in Conrads Heart of Darkness      Ã‚   Joseph Conrads Heart of Darkness is a novel about European imperialism and its far-reaching effects. Conrad relates his personal opinions through the protagonist, Marlow, who learns a great deal about imperialism while on a journey to the African Congo. Although Heart of Darkness seems to be an anti-imperialistic work, this is not entirely true. Conrad condemns the overly idealistic nature of imperialism, but does not attack BritainsRead MoreHeart of Darkness on the Flaws of Imperial Authority1024 Words   |  4 Pages â€Å"Heart of Darkness† on the Flaws of Imperial Authority Throughout Joseph Conrad’s â€Å"Heart of Darkness† despite the many conditions of the described Africa most if not all the characters agree that these conditions indeed differ from the conditions found in Europe. In working through conversations with Chinua Achebe’s Colonialist Criticism and An Image of Africa: Racism in Conrads Heart of Darkness it can be brought to light that not only is Conrad’s â€Å"Heart of Darkness† a novel that criticizesRead MoreIs Joseph Conrad a Racist and Does His Work Portray It? Essay3298 Words   |  14 Pages(1975), Chinua Achebe takes a strong stance against Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness. He asserts that Conrad was a racist and his novella is a product of his racism. A following quote that is good to show Achebe opinion for Conrad is: The point of my observations should be quite clear by now, namely that Joseph Conrad was a thoroughgoing racist. That this simple truth is glossed over in criticisms of his work is due to the fact that white racism against Africa is such a normal way of thinkingRead More Achebes Misinterpretation of Conrads Heart of Darkness Essay718 Words   |  3 Pages Achebes Misinterpretation of Heart of Darkness nbsp; Joseph Conrads Heart of Darkness is heralded by many as a classic, but over the years has presented many problems of interpretation. One of the most notable misinterpretations is Chinua Achebes An Image of Africa: Racism in Conrads Heart of Darkness. In it, Achebe points to various passages in the book that supposedly prove that Conrad and his book are racist, and that the book should be cast out of the canon of classic literatureRead MoreDr. Miller s Heart Of Darkness1936 Words   |  8 Pages Since the publication of Heart of Darkness, it has been the center of a great deal of controversy that revolves around its depiction of the natives of the continent of Africa at the height of European Imperialism. J. Miller argues that we must first read Heart of Darkness if we are to decide whether or not we should read Heart of Darkness. He also believes that Conrad himself is not racist, but rather he is ironically portraying the prevailing thought in Europe at the time of the novel. Chinu a AchebeRead MoreEssay Prejudice, Racism and Power in Heart of Darkness977 Words   |  4 PagesRace and Power in Heart of Darkness      Ã‚   In Joseph Conrads novella, Heart of Darkness, the socially constructed differences of African and European cultures are effective in representing the power sites of the time. The alleged `superiority of the European culture can be recognized by comparing their ideologies to those of the primitive, `inferior `savages. Conrads personal experiences in the Belgian Congo, in the 1890s, influenced the compilation of Heart of Darkness, reflecting the

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Raskolnikov As A Good Man Essay - 1415 Words

Haley Spackman Mrs. Mcloud AP Lit- Period 5 14 October 2015 Guilt Raskolnikov lives an ordinary life as an ordinary man. He is a good man and has a good heart, but he soon commits a crime that will forever change his life. Raskolnikov is a good man; I believe he is kind, generous, and selfless. Now, how are all of these positive traits found in a murderer? I think was caught in a psychotic moment, his mental state was not all there, and he had a dream, he made a plan, and he committed this terrible crime. A good example of Raskolnikov being a kind hearted person, and selfless is when he sees a young girl at the end of the street, he sees by her a rough looking man staring at her. He starts to get very worried what this man might do to this young girl. He goes down the street to get this young girl, and he pays for a taxi to get her home. This was so generous, and small yet so impactful. Raskolnikov cared about what might happen to this young girl, and did something about it. This showed how selfless Raskolnikov is, and what a kind heart he has. I think this shows Raskolnikov’s true character. From here, he makes some terrible decisions, and is engulfed by guilt, but I believe he is a generous, kindhearted person. In this book, Crime And Punishment, Raskolnikov goes from being an ordinary man with an ordinary life to a murderer, tortured by guilt, haunted by the memory of his crime, and him finding himself again in society after the murders. Raskolnikov soonShow MoreRelated Moral Conflicts in Crime and Punishment Essay1270 Words   |  6 Pagesother characters are introduced, is Rodion Romanovitch Raskolnikov. Raskolnikov murders an old pawnbroker woman for seemingly no reason at all. His sister and mother move to St. Petersburg following his sisters engagement to a man whom Raskolnikov was extremely displeased. Raskolnikov undergoes severe mental trauma, and falls ill after the killing. The reader isnt sure why Raskolnikov killed the woman, indeed it appears that Raskolnikov didnt know himself. He is surrounded by friends and hisRead MoreFyodor Dostoevsky Crime And Punishment Analysis1214 Words   |  5 Pagesdisapproval on the Superman theory In the novel â€Å"Crime and Punishment†, by Fyodor Dostoevsky, Dostoevsky expresses his disapproval of the Ubermensch theory by using his main character; Raskolnikov who tries to become an extraordinary person but fails to do so. Raskolnikov is put in a group where people maintain the idea that man is not actually equal but are divided into two separate groups which are; the ordinary people who are locked within the laws and tradition of society by only reproducing their ownRead MoreMarxist Theory on Crime and Punishment Essays742 Words   |  3 Pages  Ã‚  This  novel  embodies  the  Marxist  theory  because  it  is  a  proclamation  of  a  proletariat,  being that  Raskolnikov  is  out  of  place  in  society,  struggling  from  a  paralyzing  poverty  and  has  a  craving  for fighting  for  the  common  good  among  a  society  of  unjust  people. According  to  the  Marxist  the ory,  deviance  is  an  understandable  response  to  poverty. Throughout  the  novel,  there  are  many  instances  where  Raskolnikov,  along  with  other  characters  in  the novel,  suffer  from  poverty  and  in  return  take  drastic  measuresRead MoreCrime and Punishment by Fyodor Dostoevsky Essay1585 Words   |  7 Pagesdream in which Raskolnikov, as a child, watches a mare as it is beaten to death. This dream is interpreted by Raskolnikov as a cue to murder the old woman. The mare seems to be a parallel to the old woman because the spectators do not care about the mare, and she is beaten to death as a form of entertainment. Similarly, neither Raskolnikov, nor the rest of society cares for the old lady, so he views the murder as something that will benefit all of society. But in this dream, Raskolnikov, a young boyRead MoreCrime and Punishment Quotes921 Words   |  4 Pagesfrom cowardice, thats an axiom. It w ould be interesting to know what it is men are most afraid of. Ââ€"Rodion Romanovich Raskolnikov By saying this Raskolnikov suggests that men are capable of doing whatever they wish, and the only thing that holds them back are their fears. Because of this Raskolnikov wonders what mans greatest fear is, and with that comes the one thing that no man is capable of doing. 2. Â…for though Pyotr Petrovitch has been so kind as to undertake part of the expenses of theRead MoreJustice In Crime And Punishment, By Fyodor Dostoevsky1262 Words   |  6 Pagesideal. Primarily, he focuses on a man named Raskolnikov, who murders two women and then wrestles with his motives. As Raskolnikov’s hopeless outlook drives him to madness, his friend Sonia reveals an alternative view of justice, which allows for redemption. Through analyzing his character’s viewpoints, Dostoevsky never explicitly defines justice; instead, he exposes his audience to different interpretations to form their own conclusions. However, by depicting Raskolnikov spiraling into madness, DostoevskyRead MoreCrime and Punishment by Fyodor Dostoevsky881 Words   |  3 PagesPunishment, by Fyodor Dostoevsky, Raskolnikov faces a split in his con-science. Despite his attempts to achieve and maintain rational self interest, Raskolnikov finds it impossible to escape his own human nature. Throughout the course of the novel, Raskolnikov becomes divided between modernity and morality, and is continuously pulled back towards hu-man nature. From the start, Raskolnikov portrayed clearly that he was not like other people from his time. Raskolnikov had developed a habit of seclusionRead MoreDostoyevskys Crime And Punishment1447 Words   |  6 Pages is an extraordinary man; wants to rid society of the pawnbroker, the louse; wants simply to lift himself from debt with the money he stole. But these explanations do not strike the heart of the matter: there is a deeper cause. The ultimate reason behind Raskolnikov’s violent murder of the pawnbroker stems from a combination of an oppressive environment of poverty and Raskolnikov’s characteristic arrogance. Good, straightforward thesis It is almost a given that Raskolnikov was poor, however theRead MoreRaskolnikov V. Svidrigailov1393 Words   |  6 Pagesin which the primary element that plagues the protagonist, Rodion Raskolnikov, is not a person but rather an idea; his own idea. Raskolnikov has an unhealthy obsession with rendering himself into what he perceives as the ideal, supreme human being, an à ¼bermensch. Raskolnikov forms for himself a theory in which he will live purely according to his own will and transcend the social norms and moralities that dominate society. Raskolnikov suggests that acts commonly regarded as immoral are to be reservedRead MoreCrime and Punishment: Dostoevskys Portrayal of Anti-Nihilism 1443 Words   |  6 Pages(Eggers). Nihilism is commonly linked to utilitarianism, or the idea that moral decisions should be based on the rule of the greatest happiness for the largest number of people. Raskolnikov, the protagonist in Crime and Punishment, is a Nihilist, which is his main reason for committing the murders. As a Nihilist, Raskolnikov is a man who approaches everything from a critical point of view...who does not bow down before any authorities, who does not accept a single principle on faith, no matter how much

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Psychological factors Free Essays

Games Psychological factors Prepared by: Mohamed Diab Computer games are popular because they affect us emotionally, in a similar way to films and music. Just as a horror movie makes you feel scared, a survival horror computer game can terrify you too. In some ways the game makes it feel more real because you are controlling the character, so what happens to the character can feel like it is happening to you. We will write a custom essay sample on Psychological factors or any similar topic only for you Order Now Games designers use the psychological factors to improve their games and make the experience of playing them more memorable. It can be one very simply and subtly, or it can be done in a very obvious way, depending on the needs of the game. Use of Sound Sound can make you feel lots of different things – it can make you feel happy, sad, scared, brave. There isn’t a single human emotion that hasn’t been represented in music or sound effects at some point in our history. Games designers use this to their advantage and there will be an audio designer whose role is to pick the sound effects and musical scores that are used throughout a game. High-pitched, fast-paced music or sound effects tend to make you feel more excited and as if you are in the middle of the ction. Platform games and racing games use these features to add to the game’s excitement and pace. Page 2 of 10 Horror games use string instruments such as violins and the sound of creaking floor boards to make people feel tense in the same way that a horror movie does. High Score Listings anyone except the computer. Even multiplayer games were usually limited to two people. Single-player games today are often driven by the storyline and the player will continue playing to the end in order to find out what happens. In more basic games, however, this is not the case. The high score table or list becomes the otivation to play again and again. If you feel compelled to improve your high score then you will keep on playing the game until you succeed and this means that you will get more game-play for your money. A high score list is an alternative to the storyline as a motivator for playing a game repeatedly. Some recent games, especially sports games and casual games, still include high score lists and you often have the option to publish your score on line through the game so that you can compare yours to those of people across the world. In many FPS (first person shooter) games that ave online multiplayer settings, you can have a world ranking which shows you how well you are doing in a similar way to a high score list. Page 3 of 10 Competitive Games Competition with others is a driving factor that makes people try to improve their skills and abilities. High score lists will encourage you to compete against yourself, but competitive games where you play against other people will make you even more motivated to improve. Throughout our history there are examples of people competing against each other in order to prove that they are the best at something. The most wellknown example is he Olympic Games, where people come together from every country in the world to compete, and the event generates a lot of international goodwill and excitement. Inevitably there are occasions when people become over-competitive and the desire to win becomes a negative rather than positive motivation. On the whole, however, competition teaches people to be good losers, to push themselves and to analyse their skills and formulate plans to improve those skills. These are all positive attributes that make an individual successful in the world of work and are undeniably associated with being successful at computer games. Page 4 of 10 Since online multiplayer games have become mainstream, people have enjoyed playing a range of different games against friends or strangers. Some of the consoles that are aimed at younger children, such as the Nintendo† Wii or DS, restrict online play to those who are known to the player in day-to-day life rather than introducing them to people through the game that they have never met face to face. How to cite Psychological factors, Papers

Saturday, May 2, 2020

Pathophysiology of Osteoporosis Samples †MyAssignmenthelp.com

Question: Discuss about the Pathophysiology of Osteoporosis. Answer: Introduction Osteoporosis is a condition which affects borne by weakening them and also making them more fragile that they can break. The condition develops slowly and leads to abnormal porous born which is compressible like a sponge. The condition usually results in fractures and it affects one in two white women and also one in two of white men in their lifetime (Salam et al., 2014). The consequences of fractures encompass the loss of function, increased mortality and significant cost. The key factors of the condition are genetic, lack of calcium and vitamin D and also lack of exercise. Cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, family history of the condition, history of rheumatoid arthritis and low body weight. The patients with osteoporosis have no symptoms till the occurrence of fractures. The condition can be diagnosed by the X-rays and also the confirmed tests aimed at measuring the density of the bone. The study focuses on Marika who is approximated to have 80 years and is complaining to be suffering from osteoporosis. Pathophysiology of osteoporosis The basic mechanisms which are responsible for the development of osteoporosis are linked to mass acquisition at the time of development and growth and enhanced bone loss in the time after peak bone mass is attained. All these processes are modulated by environmental and genetic factors (Mirza and Canalis, 2015). Nearly 66 percent of the fracture risks in postmenopausal women is usually determined by peak bone mass. However, the peak bone mass is higher in black people as compared to Asians and whites. Studies have shown that half of the bone mass is amassed during pubertal development and it is linked to the high levels of sex hormones. Accumulation of the materials of bone is minimal at during the next 5 to 15 years. However, the peak bone mass is attained at 30 years of life. This condition is multifactorial in pathophysiology. The fractures of the condition happen due to a combination of intrinsic bone fragility and injury (Salam et al., 2014). The injuries are associated with po or postural reflexes which fail to protect bony parts from any impacts, falls, and minimized padding of soft tissue over bony prominences. Furthermore, the fragility is a combined geometry with the severance of micro-architectural links, low mass density in tabular structures and changed bone material quality. Bone quality is due to the accumulated fatigue damage but minimized collagen cross-links and some other essential material faults can also have a big role (Salam et al., 2014). The reduction in the mass of the bone is a result of combinations such as deficiency in calcium and vitamin D, reduced physical tasks, defects of medicines used to treat other conditions and comorbidity. In addition, the poor result of hip fractures in old people is as a result of linked protein-calorie malnutrition. The caloric and protein malnutrition predisposes to falls and reduces the soft tissue cover on the bony eminences. The history of weighing of women and girls having anorexia nervosa is a crucial predictor for osteoporosis development. The chronic use is linked to the reduced BMD in lumbar spine and femoral neck (Salam et al., 2 014). It is one of the risk factors for osteoporosis. Some other deficiencies linked to the alcohol abuse have a big role in osteoporosis development. Female being the most vulnerable people to osteoporosis is a factor which risked Marika from falling sick. However, being at the age of 80 years is another factor. Marika had hypertensions which is also another risk which could have made her have the condition. Since she lost her husband and left with responsibilities of looking after Bronco, life might have been hard to an extent that she did not get balance diet food to assist in building her bones. Tests for osteoporosis Marika should undergo a test to examine her conditions. The tests she should undergo are mentioned below. Bone density test This is the only test which can diagnose osteoporosis prior to fractures. The test assists to get rid of the bone densities and the chance of her to break a bone (Lorentzon and Cummings, 2015). The test uses a machine to examine the bone density of Marika and also estimates the amount of hip bone, spine bone and other types of bones. I believe that this kind of test is suitable for Marika due to her age. The health care providers recommend that the bone density of hip and spine should be done for many reasons. For instance, people with such kinds of diseases have the ability to fractures these bones easily (Lorentzon and Cummings, 2015). However, these fractures can cause serious issues the common X-rays cannot be used due to the fact that they are not able to show osteoporosis till when it is in advance stages. Furthermore, an X-ray can be employed with density tests to detect cases of broken bones. Screening test also falls under density tests and it is meant to measure the density of the bone in the finger, lower arm and wrist. These tests will assist Marika to identify if the show will be likely to benefit from further bone density examinations. Signs which Marika had One of the noticeable symptoms which Marika had is the pain. This could have been due to some fractures in her bones. However, due to lack of calcium in the body, it leads to high blood pressure and this has been a problem Marika have been battling with (Kling et al., 2014). Marika also was not able to perform duties to mean that her bones were weak. Marikas stage of osteoporosis Marika is in the acute stage of osteoporosis. This due to the development of pains which could be as a result of bone fractures in the spine, wrist, neck, and hip. The broken bone could have landed on the nerve causing lots of pain (Kling et al., 2014). She is also unable to perform tasks. Treatment for osteoporosis Treatment for osteoporosis is a right direction for the bone health. The common medication for this condition are bisphosphates which include zoledronic acid, alendronate, and ibandronate. The hormone-like estrogen plays a role in prevention and treatment of osteoporosis but there have been concerned side effects (Adler et al., 2016). They should be the lowest dose of these hormones for a short period. Women who are menopausal conditions can weigh the advantage of improved health condition. The hormone-like medications, however, have been approved for treating this condition an example is raloxifene. Furthermore, denosumab is one of the new medication which has been found to reduce the risks of the osteoporosis fracture in both women and men. Denosumab can also be used for individuals who are not in a position to take a bisphosphonate, an example is the ones with reduced kidney failure. Teriparatide is commonly used for men and also for postmenopausal women having low bone density, those whose their condition was caused by steroid medication or who have fractures this kind of drug is suitable for Marika and it is potential to rebuild the bone(Black and Rosen, 2016). In addition, another newest medication for osteoporosis is abaloparatide. Just like teriparatide, this kind of drug has the potential to rebuild the bone, research has shown that abaloparatide is more effective as compared to teriparatide but it is not likely to cause additional calcium. The medication of osteoporosis put a brake on the progress. The very drugs to treat this condition maintain the density of the bone and reduce the risk of bone fracture due to osteoporosis. Strepntium renelate have a potential effect on the cells which break down bone and also the cells which develop new bones. The drug can be employed as an alternative for bisphosphates.it is administered in powder which is dissolved in water. The use of SERMs is also applicable for treatment of osteoporosis. These are kinds of medications which have similar effects on the bone like estrogen (Black and Rosen, 2016). The assist in maintaining the bone density and also minimize the risk of a spine fracture. Osteoporosis also can be treated by use of vitamin D and calcium supplements calcium is one of the component minerals of the bone which is necessary for marinating healthy bones. Having osteoporosis means that one needs more calcium in supplement form. However, vitamin D is required in the body to assist in the absorption of calcium. Due to the fact that vitamin D is found in few types of foods, the osteoporosis patients should consider taking daily supplements that contain 10mcg. It is advisable that people should consider balanced diets particularly the ones which help in rebuilding bones in order to avoid osteoporosis in future. Conclusions Osteoporosis is a condition which affects bones. Older women are more susceptible to the disease and nutrition and behavioural factors can contribute it. Marika being a victim the condition is at the acute stage of osteoporosis. She might have lacked bone rebuilding foods thus making her susceptible to the condition. She had to undergo bone density tests to evaluate if she really had the disease. The treatments for the condition varies. For instance, bisphosphates, Teriparatide which is commonly used for men and also for postmenopausal women having low bone density, the Strepntium relate is employed as an alternative for bisphosphates, vitamin D, and calcium supplements calcium. However, the hormone-like estrogen can also be used and it plays a role in prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. References Mirza, F. and Canalis, E., 2015. Management of endocrine disease: secondary osteoporosis: pathophysiology and management.European Journal of Endocrinology,173(3), pp.R131-R151. Salam, S.N., Eastell, R. and Khwaja, A., 2014. Fragility fractures and osteoporosis in CKD: pathophysiology and diagnostic methods.American Journal of Kidney Diseases,63(6), pp.1049-1059. Lorentzon, M. and Cummings, S.R., 2015. Osteoporosis: the evolution of a diagnosis.Journal of internal medicine,277(6), pp.650-661. Black, D.M. and Rosen, C.J., 2016. Postmenopausal osteoporosis.New England Journal of Medicine,374(3), pp.254-262. Adler, R.A., El?Hajj Fuleihan, G., Bauer, D.C., Camacho, P.M., Clarke, B.L., Clines, G.A., Compston, J.E., Drake, M.T., Edwards, B.J., Favus, M.J. and Greenspan, S.L., 2016. Managing Osteoporosis in Patients on Long?Term Bisphosphonate Treatment: Report of a Task Force of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.Journal of Bone and Mineral Research,31(1), pp.16-35. Kling, J.M., Clarke, B.L. and Sandhu, N.P., 2014. Osteoporosis prevention, screening, and treatment: a review.Journal of women's health,23(7), pp.563-572.